The church was built in 1296 at the behest of Pope Boniface VIII, but was completed only in 1420. The current appearance is the result of the reconstruction of the years 1479-1483 by Jacopo di Pietrasanta and Sebastian Fiorentino.
In 1756 Luigi Vanvitelli radically transformed the interior of the church and changed the fifteenth-fifteenth-century fifteenth-century century bell tower. In the first chapel on the left is the famous painting of the “Madonna of the Pilgrims” by Caravaggio (1604), while the third pillar to the left of the central nave is decorated with a fresco by Raffaello depicting the “Prophet Isaiah” (1512). On the main altar, made in 1627 on a design by Bernini, there is the “Virgin and Child” from the church of SaintHagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Of particular importance is the altarpiece depicting “St. Augustine, John the Evangelist and Jerome” by Guercino (1591-1666) in the chapel of the right transept dedicated to the patron saint.